The Gospel of Rudy Giuliani

Nov. 24th, 2014 04:28 pm
[syndicated profile] tanehisicoates_feed

Posted by Ta-Nehisi Coates

On Sunday, former New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani went on Meet the Press to discuss the killing of Michael Brown. Giuliani offered the kind of candor and tough talk that almost made him president:

The fact is that I find it very disappointing that you're not discussing the fact that 93 percent of blacks in America are killed by other blacks. We are talking about the significant exception here [in the Brown case]. I'd like to see the attention paid to that that you are paying to this.

Yes. It's almost as if killers tend to murder people who live near them. Moreover, it seems that people actually hold officers operating under the color of law to a different standard. This an incredible set of insights, which taken together offer a revelation so profound, so far-reaching, that it must not be wasted on our shiftless minority populations. The Gospel of Rudy Giuliani must sally forth across the land and challenge a culture that accepts neighborly violence and differing standards of death.

For nearly 15 years, our politicians have told us that murder perpetrated by Islamic terrorists represented an existential threat to the country. From al-Qaeda to ISIS, we are told that radical Islam is a killer that will drive us all into the sea. In fact, however, the most prolific killer of Americans hides behind a cloak of sensitivity and political correctness. The time has now come for some tough talk: The American people have one of the highest murder rates in the industrialized world. Almost all of these people are killed by other Americans. War hustlers and Bin Laden pimps love to go around screaming, but 9/11! Three thousand people died on 9/11. Nearly 15,000 Americans were killed in 2012. Americans perpetrate roughly five 9/11s against other Americans every year. By the end of this week, more Americans will be killed by other Americans than were ever killed by ISIS.

Why are our politicians ignoring this plague of American-on-American crime? Why are American leaders not protesting the cult of death that fills the graveyards of America? Who will bravely challenge the culture of failure that says that Americans should only be outraged when Muslims kill Americans? Who will challenge the American pathology that says that a boy who walks unarmed is acting French?

I demand a TSA checkpoint at every shopping mall to shield Americans against Americans. I demand drones to kill Americans before they kill other Americans. I demand that American leaders stop pretending that American morgues and American cemeteries are full of young men because of jihadis. The evidence is clear—American-on-American violence is a silent killer that only Americans can stop. American criminality is now so rampant that it must always be the only topic of any conversation. Let us not speak of any act of international terrorism until American terrorism has been wholly vanquished.

I realize that uttering these hard truths will find me ostracized from an America where my brave stand and incredible courage will not be appreciated. But this great truth, this high principle, must be spoken in every corner of our country. To the limit the Gospel of Giuliani to black people would imply that we regard them as separate category of humanity, fit to be judged by a separate standard. And we wouldn't want that.

This article was originally published at

(no subject)

Nov. 24th, 2014 11:02 am
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[personal profile] telophase
Toby and I spent the weekend playing Dragon Age: The Loadening. Yes, its real subtitle is Inquisition, but the load screens are diabolically long.

And when I mean that we played it, is that he handled the controls while I watched. When the character got to a decision point that affected plot, I made the choice, and Toby took care of combat. It makes for a nice together thing, especially because I can sit back reading a book or browsing Reddit while he plays, and we both get the experience of amusing glitches, like remarkably porous stairs into which the characters sink ankle-deep, or the horse that climbed up onto a stone fence. Or the amazing sliding horse that skidded sideways through the stables instead of walking.

I attempted to make the main character look like Toby, and failed completely, ending up with a Roman centurion who just can't even. Toby named him "SerTired," short for "SerTiredOfThisShit," and I've been having him make decisions that fit with that persona.

Uplands and Slopes: South Plateau

Nov. 24th, 2014 09:00 am
holyoutlaw: (me meh)
[personal profile] holyoutlaw


The South Plateau is an isolated upland with a separate, unofficial entrance. From the main body of the park, it is only accessible via a steep social trail that is slippery in the winter and friable in the summer. If you think of North Beach Park as a boot, the South Plateau is the heel. The floor of the plateau is surrounded by steep, short walls.

The South Plateau, at 25,000 square feet, is also the largest flat area in the park. As explained in “Park and Restoration History,” the South Plateau was intensively cleared in the summer of 2012 by an independent forest steward.

For more than a year, the only work done in the South Plateau was by Parks Department Natural Area Crew. In the summer of 2014, forest stewards watered and did some after care for the plants in June and July, and there was a work party in September.

The South Plateau has less than 1% conifer cover, but at least 75% deciduous cover.

The target forest type for the South Plateau is Tsuga heterophyllaPseudotsuga menziesii/Polystichum munitumDryopteris expansa (Western hemlock – Douglas fir/Sword fern – Spreading wood fern; TSHE-PSME/POMU-DREX). The reference ecosystem is Mesic-moist conifer and conifer-deciduous mixed forest.

Water Flow

During the rainy season, water accumulates from NW 85th St. and 26th Ave NW (310 feet) (all elevations from Seattle DPD GIS map). It runs to the north uninterrupted by any green scape or drainage system the length of 26th Ave. to 88th St., where it turns to the west. Once at 27th Ave., it turns again to the north and enters the park. The floor of the South Plateau is at 250 feet, giving this run about a 5% grade.

Figure 1: Path of water flow into the South Plateau.

The blue line indicates path of water, which flows toward the top of the map, from 85th St. to the South Plateau. (Source: Seattle Department of Public Development DPDGIS map.)

The blue line indicates path of water, which flows toward the top of the map, from 85th St. to the South Plateau. (Source: Seattle Department of Public Development DPDGIS map.)

Before clearing, the dense ivy and blackberry cover dissipated a lot of the energy of this water flow, spreading it out over the surface of the plateau. However, invasive removal caused a serious erosion problem was caused.

The Parks Department has installed rip rap and forced meanders into the water flow using plantings and fascines (water barriers made of bundles of salmonberry live stakes).

Figure 2: Water flow in May, 2014

Looking up towards the entrance of the park (the gray rocks in the upper right.) This is from about the middle of the fascines.

Looking up towards the entrance of the park (the gray rocks in the upper right.) This is from about the middle of the fascines.

There is still some water flow control to be done on the South Plateau, and it will have to be studied during rain events of different sizes during the fall and winter.

Water control can be improved in this area by adding meanders to the downstream end of the storm runoff, maintaining the existing meanders and fascines, and working with the stream to slow it down and let the water percolate through the plateau.

During the summer drought, the South Plateau has no water source. This leads the soil to dry and harden, becoming very compact. Plant establishment is very slow, but improving.

For more recent observations on South Plateau water issues, please see Water Flow: South Plateau Street Runoff.


At the start of restoration, the South Plateau was a mix of Acer macrophyllum (Big leaf maple) and Alnus rubra (red alder), with a shrub layer almost exclusively of Hedera helix (English ivy) and Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry). Other notable invasives included Lamium galeobdolon (Yellow archangel) and Clematis vitalba (Wild clematis).

There is still a fair amount of remnant and resurgent Hedera helix (ivy). Calystegia sepium (bindweed), Lapsana communis (nipplewort), and Geranium robertianum (herb robert) have also made inroads.

A forest monitoring plot following the Green City protocol was established in the South Plateau in July, 2012, and revisited in August, 2013. Note the difference, in Figures 3 and 4 below, in regenerative invasive trees. This is what happens with overclearing followed by neglect.

Figure 3: Invasive regenerative trees, South Plateau, 2012.

This was the extent of invasive trees in 2012, when the South Plateau was just starting to be cleared. (Source: EarthCorps, 2012)

This was the extent of invasive trees in 2012, when the South Plateau was just starting to be cleared. (Source: EarthCorps, 2012)

Figure 4: Invasive regenerative trees, South Plateau, 2013.

The South Plateau was cleared aggressively in 2012 and early 2013, and then neglected.

The South Plateau was cleared aggressively in 2012 and early 2013, and then neglected.

Invasive Removal and Restoration Plan

Figure 5: South Plateau.

A: Accessible to volunteers. B: Contract or Natural Area Crew. (Source: GSP Reference Map on

A: Accessible to volunteers. B: Contract or Natural Area Crew. (Source: GSP Reference Map on

Subarea A

Subarea A (outlined in blue in Figure 5, above), at 13,000 square feet, is the largest and driest flat area of the park and the most volunteer friendly. Even though it’s surrounded by Subarea B, it can be accessed by walking carefully down some rip rap. This was the area the independent forest steward and her crew worked in.

The over-clearing followed by neglect has left the South Plateau with a plant community that is still very much out of balance. It’s in better shape than when the ivy and blackberry dominated, but it’s still at risk of an invasive-only plant community.

There is still a lot of invasive removal in Subarea A, including annuals such as Lapsana communis (nipplewort). Subarea A could use a lot of wood mulch, both around the establishing plants, and in large areas of relatively bare ground. In the long term, this would ease the compaction of the soil and aid in plant establishment.

Suggested tasks for Subarea A:

  • Mulch around existing plants, and spread mulch to a depth of at least 4” in bare areas of South Plateau.
  • Monitor water flow during rain events. Adjust and repair fascines as necessary.
  • Add meanders to further reaches of South Plateau. The goal is to slow and spread the water, so it stays on the South Plateau and percolates into the soil.
  • Investigate mycelium inoculation as a means of improving soil conditions.
  • Forest stewards continue working in South Plateau one day a month for after care and weeding.
  • Have two work parties a year (one for planting, one for invasive removal and/or after care).

Subarea B

Subarea B is the walls surrounding the plateau part of the South Plateau. It measures approximately 12,000 square feet. The walls are nearly vertical, making it only available for work by the Parks Department Natural Area Crew. There is a rim of the plateau accessible from 27th Ave NW, but it is so narrow that the best approach is to have the Natural Area Crew work on the rim, and the forest stewards or volunteers do aftercare.

Either the Parks Department Natural Area Crew or the volunteers in the summer of 2012 (or both) have done some work on the western slope. On the eastern and southern slopes of the wall, property lines might be an issue.

Further work on Subarea B will be done by the Parks Department Natural Area Crew. Some of the work could be done at the same time as working on the South or West Slopes (see below).

Suggested tasks for Subarea B:

  • Remove resurgent invasives and increase density in cleared areas.
  • Remove ivy and put survival rings on trees on the northern edges of the South Plateau.
  • Coordinate work on the northern edges of the South Plateau with work done on the South Slope.


Department of Planning and Development. 2007. City of Seattle Department of Planning and Development GIS map. (Dates of accession various.)

EarthCorps. 2012. North Beach Park South Plateau Baseline Report. (unpublished document). EarthCorps, Seattle.

EarthCorps. 2013. North Beach Park South Plateau Monitoring Report. (unpublished document). EarthCorps, Seattle.

Green Seattle Partnership, 2014. GSP Reference Map on,47.374,-121.7945,47.7577 (Dates of accession various.)

Mirrored from Nature Intrudes. Please comment over there.

Believe Card #2

Nov. 24th, 2014 10:59 am
wanderlustlover: (Religion: Elements - Fire - sun_star_n_m)
[personal profile] wanderlustlover
There are two ways to live your life.

One is as though nothing is a miracle.

The other is as though everything is a miracle.

- Albert Eintsein
[syndicated profile] outsidedog_feed

Posted by Kate

I was lukewarm about the opening book in Courtney Milan’s Brothers Sinister series. But not about the second book, The Heiress Effect: I love it passionately and with only the tiniest little reservations. I laughed, I cried, I couldn’t stop reading, it’s awesome. (I actually read this quite some time ago, but when I was looking at my ereader I couldn’t remember if I had because sleep deprivation, so ended up reading it all over again.)

Why, you say, is it awesome? Let me tell you, dear reader. Here are our main characters:

Jane Fairfield is stunningly rich but needs to remain unmarried until her epileptic sister Emily comes of age, because her sister’s guardian, in misguided attempts to keep Emily safe, confines her and subjects her to painful medical quackery—which Jane attempts to deflect with bribes and other methods, but to do that, she needs to be in the household. So she deliberately makes herself garish and horrible to repel suitors.

Oliver Marshall is the illegitimate son of a duke (see the prequel novella) who was raised in a loving, hard-working farming family and who desperately wants a political career to address class injustices (the political plot of the novel is the Reform Act of 1867, which increased male suffrage in the UK). To do that, he’s taught himself to fit in with the elite, to swallow their insults and work behind the scenes for incremental change.

Oliver sees what Jane’s doing almost immediately, the first person to do so; but he can’t afford to like her as she is, and she can’t afford to be the kind of political wife he’s looking for.

Also, there is a secondary romance involving Jane’s sister Emily and an Indian man who’s come to England to study law and work for better political treatment of India (this is ten years after what was then known as the Sepoy Mutiny). This is my first little reservation, that this whole plotline may be slightly too easy, but the two of them are very sweet and a lot of the complexities are at least raised, and I figure I’m allowed a little bit of wish-fulfillment in my fiction. (At the epilogue, it’s about twenty years early, historically, for an Indian MP.)

(My second little reservation is that one character is too blatantly Snidely Whiplash. He’s sadly plausible, and I guess everyone else turns out to be at least a bit nuanced, but it feels rather on-the-nose, especially early on.)

So: characters I liked immediately, genuine conflicts, and the thing that really hit a nerve for me: it’s a book about the personal costs of fighting oppression: internalized -isms, learning the dangers of using the master’s tools, and doing what you can with what you have (the part with the grand adventure is what started my waterworks). Oh, and grace notes of female friendship, strong adoptive families, and not magically fixing or shaming people with disabilities, too.

It’s awesome. Go read it.

wanderlustlover: (Religion: Faith In Typing & Untying - e-)
[personal profile] wanderlustlover
I have upward of 10+ things with Asian Deities. Can Yin, Ganesh, Durga, Lakshmi on the walls and in statuary. It's tempting to say once I sign up for RCGI that my year one focus on Goddesses might be tempted away to Asian Deities. (Even though previously it was doing all the most important deities of my life thus far.)

But this is interesting to note as things go up.

I'm really so pleased to have things on my wall in my bedroom.

It's becoming a massive, magical sanctuary. All these things from RCG, Blue Moon Meets, Chakra Girls, Temple of Twelve, The Silver Bow Sisterhood. Herbs, oils, tarot, runes, astrology, holidays, elements. I feel like the story of my soul is written on the walls of my room. It feels daunting, and beautiful, and brave, and so very naked.

I should have done this so long ago. But there is no guilt or remorse in this (/that).

I am giving birth to myself, and I feel allowed, empowered, certain, I get to take however much time I need to and to love, with gratitude and the humble respect, the self who kept me together to get to this point.

Rumors and the news

Nov. 24th, 2014 07:50 am
outlier_lynn: (Default)
[personal profile] outlier_lynn
Chuck Hagel resigned. A White House spokesman said it was mutual.

The two sentences sum up the news part of a ten minute NPR report I listened to this morning. One fact, one official statement about the fact. That's it. The rest of the story was conjecture by the reporters and rumormongering.

Rumors are NOT news.
Conjecture is NOT news.

Unsubstantiated pseudofacts are NOT news.
Unexamined statistics are NOT facts and are NOT news.
[syndicated profile] kameronhurley_feed

Posted by admin

I’m writing about a book a year right now.

With a day job and freelancing work on top of my novel writing, that’s about all I can manage. Next year’s schedule has me writing at least one book in just eight months, which a lot of folks who write four or more books a year are probably laughing at, but my work is known for its worldbuilding, and to be brutally honest, coming up with the worlds I do without starting to repeat myself like a parrot would be impossible with any more than a book a year. I’ve already found myself repeating things – drugs like “sen” showed up in three different works. Games like “screes” have tapped in twice, and the ubiquitous bugs of the GOD’S WAR universe took a lot of work to scrub out of the MIRROR EMPIRE.

I come to imaginative fiction for something new and different, and that’s what I strive to deliver to my readers.

But that’s not what I deliver in my first draft.

What I find interesting in speaking to other writers, especially newer writers, is that they expect that I have all this funky weirdness in the first pass of my novels, and I shit brilliance with every keystroke, like it’s this natural talent to just come up with wacky worlds and messed-up characters. The reality is that that’s completely impossible to write mind-blowing first drafts at the rate that I write. A book a year may seem like small potatoes to, say, romance novelists or other career novelists, but to me it’s a vast undertaking, and it means writing a first draft that’s primarily dialogue and fight scenes, and spending the vast majority of that year mulling over the plot while endlessly noodling over it. This was how I wrote the GOD’S WAR books, and much of my rewriting of MIRROR EMPIRE was spent reimagining the world even more than I reimagined the plot. Because I wrote a draft of MIRROR EMPIRE before GOD’S WAR, it also meant excising all the things from there that I’d stolen and put into GOD’S WAR – some of the worldbuilding details, like locusts that delivered messages, certain games and drugs, all had to go. The endless rewriting I talk about doing right up until I get proofs isn’t just about plot or sentence structure or typos, but filling in worldbuilding details.

If you ever want to complete a project on time, at the rate that publishers would like you to publish, you have to push past the scenes that require a lot of mental effort. Writing every day, or writing in bursts of 5,000 even 10,000 words at a stretch like I do, means that you’re going to get burned out at some point. You’ll have days where you just need to get to the end of the scene, the chapter. I’ve outlined the final chapters for EMPIRE ASCENDANT and I’m just using the paragraph summary of each, putting it at the head of my file, and referring back to it when I get stuck. These are the things that need to happen in this chapter. These things. Everything else can be filled in later. But the character needs to find the burned-out city harbor, get chased up a tree by bandits, get out of the tree, meet up with character Y, and get on a ship to escape the city. To write all that quickly, I can’t spend time on character descriptions, weird plants, and asides about tea and the weather. The depth to the scenes in this chapter will come in revision.

My job, on the first pass, is just to get character A to place B and make sure the plot as outlined makes sense once it’s one the page.2010-11-17_145448

It also means that I sometimes put off the emotional arc for the character until the rewrite as well. There are two plots in every book (realizing this was a revelation to me, I admit). There’s the overarching plot – invaders are coming from parallel worlds, in the case of the MIRROR EMPIRE books – and a bunch of folks have to rally to stop them. But within that larger plot, there are individual emotional character arcs. I have twelve POV characters in EMPIRE ASCENDANT, and that means plotting out their emotional arcs in addition to the broader plot arc, and ensuring those things intersect. If you’re really cool, those two plots look seamless, organic, and the emotional character arc drives the overarching plot and it looks very natural. This is something I worked hard to showcase in a smaller form in a recent short story, “Elephants and Corpses” due in May from Knowing that I had two plots twinning together, and that the emotional arc needed to drive the overall arc, I was able to write the story relatively quickly. Being a short story, it didn’t need as many worldbuilding details, either, so I stuck to a few broad strokes.

Once this draft of EMPIRE ASCENDANT is done, the real work of the book starts. I consider first drafts little more than blocking outlines. It’s like a theater rehearsal where everyone’s wearing jeans and reading from their scripts, and the sets are still unpainted Styrofoam cutouts. Folks go through the motions while staring at their pages, so the deeper context, the immersion of the story, the stuff that helps you suspend your disbelief, is missing, or merely formless.

Revisions are when you polish all that stuff up – the actors know their lines and toss their books, you burn the Styrofoam and spray paint it to look like a fireplace. You hang the curtains. You put the big scenery painting behind the window. You dress the actors in period costume. Folks finally get their accents right. You put real water in the glasses.

I didn’t even add a third-gender pronoun to MIRROR EMPIRE until the copyediting stage. Which shows you just how long I’ll gnaw on the pros/cons of a thing before making the final decision.

I spend a lot of time excising lazy writing from my work, too, because when I’m writing fast, it often comes out lazy. Last night I realized I’d defaulted to every single spear carrier in a scene being a “he,” which was just silly and would need to be fixed in revision. When you find an issue, you can either fix it right then, or make a note of it to fix later. I make a note and fix them later. If I lose my momentum here in the last third of the book, I won’t have a draft on time. And if I don’t have a draft on time, I’ll have nothing to rewrite to awesomeness.

Now that I’m at about the 2/3 point in EMPIRE ASCENDANT, I realize it’s time to hit the library again, too, to give my brain some time to mull over the soon-to-be-winning details of the final draft. If I start reading now, it’ll be suitably ground about by my brain in time to finish the polish before it goes to my editor, and hit max fermentation just in time to hit the ground running when my editor sends me the structural edit (which will be while I’m drafting my next book, the one that must be written in eight months ::weeps::).

The reality is that my writing process is just that – a process. If I didn’t work to deadline, with chapter outlines, I’d be fiddling with drafts forever. They’re never perfect. But at some point they have to get out the door.

So if you’re somebody agonizing over a first draft, and thinking about how clunky and wooden everyone sounds, and how so-and-so could just stand in for such and such, well, you know – our drafts probably look about the same right now.

I don’t show people my first drafts. It’s painful enough when my agent asks for them.

The magic, for me, happens in the rewriting. But you can only rewrite something you’ve actually written. And the only way I’m going to finish something is if I don’t sit here and agonize over every sentence, every exchange. I need to set it down, vomit it out, and clean it up later.

Writing is not about achieving perfection. Writing is a quest for perfection, and like any quest for perfection, is doomed to fail. What you want to do is fail better, fail harder, and move on.

Because you’ve got to do it all over again for your next deadline.



[syndicated profile] apraxial_feed

the way he pulled his body in, out of shyness or shame or a desire
     not to disturb the air around him. (x)

Tis the season

Nov. 24th, 2014 09:48 am
pbray: (snow)
[personal profile] pbray
Feeling overwhelmed, as I often do as the Christmas season approaches. Lots of stuff going on, and like many women I am conditioned to feel bad whenever I have to say No. Even when saying No is key to maintaining mental health.

So here it is. No. With the following explanation: "You have a great crowdfunding project/I love that you're raising money for a charity/I share your outrage about X and want to help. But between bailing out a family member in a financial crisis and supporting charities in my community, I am completely tapped out."
[syndicated profile] sociological_images_feed

Posted by Lisa Wade, PhD

“They were coming to college believing that all Indians are dead,” said education professor Sarah Shear of her experience in the classroom.

Her students’ seeming ignorance to the fact that American Indians are a part of the contemporary U.S., not just the historical one, led her to take a closer look at what they were learning. She examined the academic standards for elementary and secondary school education in all 50 states, these are the guidelines that educators use to plan curricula and write textbooks. The results are summarized at Indian Country.

Shear found that the vast majority of references to American Indians — 87 percent — portrayed them as a population that existed only prior to 1900.  There was “nothing,” she said, about contemporary issues for American Indian populations or the ongoing conflicts over land and water rights or sovereignty. Only one state, New Mexico, even mentions the name of a single member of the American Indian Movement.


Meanwhile, the genocidal war against American Indians is portrayed as an inevitable conflict that colonizers handled reasonably.  “All of the states are teaching that there were civil ways to end problems,” she said, “and that the Indian problem was dealt with nicely.”  Only one state, Washington, uses the word genocide. Only four states mention Indian boarding schools, institutions that represent the removal of children from their families and forced re-socialization into a Euro-American way of life.

The fact that so many people absorb the idea that Native Americans are a thing of the past — and a thing that we don’t have to feel too badly about — may help explain why they feel so comfortable dressing up like them on Halloween, throwing “Conquistabros and Navahos” parties, persisting in using Indian mascots, leaving their reservations off of Google maps, and failing to include them in our media. It might also explain why we expect Indian-themed art to always feature a pre-modern world.

Curricular choices matter. So long as young people learn to think of Indians no differently than they do Vikings and Ancient Romans, they will overwhelmingly fail to notice or care about ongoing interpersonal and institutional discrimination against American Indians who are here now.

Lisa Wade is a professor of sociology at Occidental College and the co-author of Gender: Ideas, Interactions, Institutions. You can follow her on Twitter and Facebook.

(View original at

(no subject)

Nov. 24th, 2014 09:51 am
onlysmallwings: a person holding a sign reading "Free Hug <3" (Default)
[personal profile] onlysmallwings
Huzzah for Disney WiFi. Nothing quite like reading fic while waiting in line.
[syndicated profile] transcendmedia_feed

Posted by Antonio C. S. Rosa

Inserting nuclear material into space flight is a dangerous venture, yet the U.S. and Russia are considering doing so. The recent crash of Virgin Galactic’s Spaceship Two and explosion on launch three days earlier of an Antares rocket further underline the dangers of inserting nuclear material in the always perilous space flight equation as the U.S. and Russia still plan.
[syndicated profile] transcendmedia_feed

Posted by Antonio C. S. Rosa

The report Don’t Bank on the Bomb, published today [7 Nov 2014] by Dutch peace organization PAX, identifies 411 banks, insurance companies and pension funds with investments in 28 companies involved in the production, maintenance or stockpiling of nuclear weapons.
[syndicated profile] transcendmedia_feed

Posted by Antonio C. S. Rosa

23 Nov 2014 - A controversial bill that officially defines Israel as the nation-state of the Jewish people has been approved by cabinet despite warnings that the move risks undermining the country’s democratic character.


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